Within month’s column We provide some guidelines for writing expressionistic short-short fiction. While I’m at it, I’m in addition likely to say several terms about writing other forms of impractical fiction: surrealism, magical realism, and dream.
Expressionism, in summary, is art that emphasizes the artist’s feeling at some cost to truth. Obviously, all art involves settlement between reality and representation. No representation is the thing it presents, and any representation is bound to contain traces for the artist’s emotions. So how is this a useful definition?
It comes down right down to a question of degree.
Expressionism: Nietzsche, Dionysus, and Kafka
In an early philosophical work, Friedrich Nietzsche pointed to particular Greek tragedies once the highest type of art because they balanced two views around the globe, the Apollonian plus the Dionysian. Sunlight god Apollo is self-controlled and perfect. Dionysus, the god of wine, is emotional and disorderly.
Gods tend to be complex and full of contradiction, like people. For the sake of this conversation, let’s over-simplify them a little. Let’s state Apollo is light, certainty and reason while Dionysus is dark, doubt, and impulse. Apollo shines the sun's rays on the globe and says, “right here it's.” On a starless evening, Dionysus whispers, “What’s available to you?”
Practical art reflects Apollo, whose sphere comes with reason. Like, hard science-fiction, which can be a variety of possibility, explanation, and idealism, is Apollonian despite the fact that we don’t think of it as realism.
Surrealism is Dionysian, a form of art at odds with both reason and reality. But even in an unique painting eg Salvador Dali’s crucifixion (“Hypercubic Body”), the geometric purchase and precise rendering for the person kinds owe some thing to Apollo.
All art is touched by both gods, many art plainly owes more to a single god or even the various other. So it is with expressionism. Expressionism leans on Dionysus.
We understand this is a bit unclear. Fortunately, we could seek out a particular instance. Unlike the field of painting, in which an enormous number of music artists of widely variations tend to be identified as expressionists, in fiction just one author is consistently cited for example of expressionism: Franz Kafka.
In Kafka’s best-known work, “The Metamorphosis, ” their protagonist, Gregor Samsa, wakes up one early morning discover that he is a massive cockroach. Samsa carries on together with life, trying to reside in a global where he cannot fit and is unloved, gradually shrinking to become a smaller sized and smaller roach until he's just a clear layer that his sibling sweeps up-and dumps utilizing the garbage.
Apart from the information of Samsa being a cockroach and all sorts of those around him accepting his condition just as if it had been routine, “The Metamorphosis” is a realistic story.
I said earlier in the day that expressionism leans on Dionysus, however in literary expressionism, leaning on Dionysus doesn't mean dropping headlong into the dark seas of hallucination and chaos. On paper expressionism, we dip our toes in to the psychological pool, after which we continue with logic.
Gregor Samsa transforms into a cockroach permanently reason. He has always sensed like a roach. His mental the truth is that he is a disgusting thing that their family truly doesn’t want to have around. Kafka creates a fictive idea from Samsa’s psychological reality. He is like a roach, therefore when you look at the story, he's one. The metaphor for their psychological situation is taken as physical truth, and also the story moves rationally from that starting place.
Problematic with utilizing Kafka as our sole instance is that Kafka explored just the dark thoughts of anxiety and despair. Literary expressionism can be predicated on any psychological metaphor your copywriter chooses to treat just as if it had been objectively real. Does becoming crazy make us feel lighter-than-air? There’s your tale premise. Possibly a new man, negotiating the issues of drifting nearby the ceiling all few days, is interrupted by the way that their beloved keeps sinking toward flooring each day. does not she love him as much as he loves her?
Simply speaking, the current weather of an expressionistic story are pretty easy: Start with a difficult truth that one can show with a metaphor. Result in the metaphor objectively real. Let the characters function out this reality as though there have been nothing unique into the situation, as though this had been the very thing that takes place. That's, don’t let your characters believe that it is any more odd to float regarding the roof than it is to-fall crazy.
How the metaphor develops, how the story ends up, is simply a question of just how such thoughts work on their own call at the figures. The aim of an expressionistic story is tell the story associated with the mental reality therefore the reactions of people to it. Our tale concerning the man who's drifting because he could be crazy will most likely end somewhere near the point where he returns to earth, or perhaps where the breakup tends to make him sink in to the earth.
Expressionism lends itself to flash fiction because these types of stories normally have a fairly quick considered to express: this is just what a person character’s reality is like. The author gets the concept across in an entertaining way, and therefore’s sufficient, when I wish I have shown in “Estranged.”
Surrealism: Underwater at Night
Surrealism, like expressionism, also lends itself to flash fiction. If expressionism dips its feet in to the dark swimming pools of Dionysus, surrealism dives in and tries to see how lengthy it may hold its breath. Surrealism cares nothing for logic or explanation. Any such thing sometimes happens.